Turabian Style: Footnotes/Endnotes & Bibliography

The Turabian citation style offers two different documentation systems. Writers in the humanities generally utilize a system that combines notes and a bibliography: 

 (N) Footnotes or Endnotes.                 The first line should be indented five spaces, with following lines in the entry flush with

                                                              the left margin.

(B) Bibliography.                                  The first line should begin flush with the left margin, with following lines indented five 

                                                              spaces.

  

Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations

The examples cited below illustrate common material formats. For additional examples or more information, please see A Manuel for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007– available in the Library Reference Room (Ref LB2369.T8)  

Book

One author

N:
1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.
B:
Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Two authors

N:
6. Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 104–7.
B:
Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Four or more authors

N:
13. Edward O. Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 262.
B:
Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

N:
4. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
B:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

N:
16. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 22.
B:
Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Chapter or other part of a book

N:
5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.
B:
Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

N:
8. Quintus Tullius Cicero. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 ofUniversity of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.
B:
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 ofUniversity of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

N:
17. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.
B:
Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Book published electronically

N:
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).
B:
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

Journal article

Article in a print journal

N:
8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.
B:
Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

Article in an online journal

N:
33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002),http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).
B:
Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).
Popular magazine article
N:
29. Steve Martin, “Sports-Interview Shocker,” New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.
B:
Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.
Newspaper Article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in aNew York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

N:
10. William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
B:
Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.
Book Review




N:
1. James Gorman, “Endangered Species,” review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.
B:
Gorman, James. “Endangered Species.” Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002.
Thesis or dissertation
N:
22. M. Amundin, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena” (PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29, 35.
B:
Amundin, M. “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
N:
13. Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59” (paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002).
B:
Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.
Web site

Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its Web site, the Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . .”) instead of in a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

N:
11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library,http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
B:
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library.http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).
Weblog entry or comment

Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

N:
8. Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006,http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080052(accessed March 28, 2006).
B:
Becker-Posner Blog, The. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/ (accessed March 28, 2006).
E-mail message

E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

N:
2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.
Item in online database

Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online journal.”

N:
7. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the Perseus Digital Library,http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+1.dedication (accessed November 17, 2005).
B:
Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ (accessed November 17, 2005).

Examples provided by the "Turabian Citation Guide." The University of Chicago Press | Home . http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_citationguide.html/ (accessed July 19, 2012).